With increased lipolysis, the amount of acetyl-coenzyme A is excessive, and the activity of enzymes that activate the formation of fatty acids and cholesterol is insufficient. Therefore, the utilization of acetyl-coenzyme A occurs mainly by ketolysis.
A large number of ketone bodies (acetone, b-hydroxybutyric acid, acetoacetic acid) causes a violation of acid-base and water-electrolyte balance, has a toxic effect on the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract, which is expressed in the clinic of acetonemic syndrome.
Psychoemotional stress, intoxication, pain, insolation, infections (SARS, gastroenteritis, pneumonia, neuroinfections) can act as factors provoking acetonemic syndrome. An important role in the development of Etoricoxib syndrome is played by alimentary factors - starvation, overeating, excessive consumption of protein and fatty foods with a carbohydrate deficiency. Acetonemic syndrome in newborns is usually associated with late toxicosis that occurred in a pregnant woman - nephropathy. Symptoms of acetone syndrome.
Acetonemic syndrome is often found in children with constitutional anomalies (nervous-arthritic diathesis).
Such children are distinguished by increased excitability and rapid exhaustion of the nervous system; they have a thin physique, are often overly shy, suffer from neurosis and restless sleep. At the same time, a child with a neuro-arthritic anomaly of the constitution develops speech, memory and other cognitive processes faster than their peers. Children with neuro-arthritic diathesis are prone to impaired metabolism of purines and uric acid, therefore, in adulthood, they are prone to the development of urolithiasis, gout, arthritis, glomerulonephritis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Typical manifestations of acetonemic syndrome are acetonemic crises. Similar crises in acetonemic syndrome can develop suddenly or after precursors (the so-called aura): lethargy or agitation, lack of appetite, nausea, migraine headache, etc.
A typical clinic of an acetone crisis is characterized by repeated or indomitable vomiting that occurs when trying to feed or water a child. Against the background of vomiting in acetonemic syndrome, signs of intoxication and dehydration quickly develop (muscle hypotension, weakness, pallor of the skin with a blush).
Motor excitement and restlessness of the child are replaced by drowsiness and weakness; in severe acetonemic syndrome, meningeal symptoms and convulsions are possible. Fever (37.5-38.5 ° C), abdominal cramps, diarrhea or stool retention are characteristic. From the mouth of the child, from the skin, urine and vomit comes the smell of acetone.
The first attacks of acetonemic syndrome usually appear at the age of 2-3 years, become more frequent by the age of 7 and completely disappear by the age of 12-13.
Diagnosis of acetonemic syndrome.
The recognition of acetonemic syndrome is facilitated by the study of anamnesis and complaints, clinical symptoms, and laboratory results. Be sure to distinguish between primary and secondary acetonemic syndrome.